Now in psychology, the main methods that are formed to describe people to one degree or another are attempts to explain their behavior in special conditions, including work. So, on the headway portal, you will find a lot of interesting topics for discussion, in which there is still room for new ideas and factors. We are talking about such concepts as the theory of personality characteristics, behaviorism, social learning theory, useful books to read, psychological growth, society, and much more.
1. Behavior in the theory of personal features
According to the theory of personal features, the observed variability of people who are in the same conditions, for example, participating in the implementation of the general production task, should be explained by individual (congenital or acquired in the course of socialization) features.
For example, if an employee does not fulfill the development rate, then an adherent of the theory of personal features will explain this fact by its innate slowness.
2. Scientific model of behavior
Denotes science or doctrine of behavior. The methodology is the basis of the theoretical base of modern concepts of organizational behavior. In general, it is built on the refusal to explain the causes of behavior with the help of mechanisms of consciousness, what classical psychology was engaged in, operating with such concepts as “consciousness”, “will”, “thinking”, etc.
The founder of this point of view, J. Watson (“Psychology from the point of view of the behaviorist”, 1913) divided all reactions to hereditary (reflexes, simple emotions) and acquired (habits, thinking, speech, feelings, social behavior).
According to this model, the development of behavior occurs by acquiring new reactions based on the existing repertoire of hereditary reactions to unconditional incentives - incentives that cause strictly defined reactions. For example, only two unconditional stimuli cause an emotion of fear in a baby - a loss of balance and a loud sound. In the subsequent experience of life, unconditional incentives are connected to conditional (appearing simultaneously with unconditional), which are able to cause a similar reaction.
3. The concept of group dynamics
The concept of group dynamics is built on the statement of the direct conditioning (determinism) of a person’s behavior by the collective behavior of the group, primarily small. From this point of view, it follows that human behavior in the organization is directly related to the collective activity in which it participates, and is its product. In this regard, it is necessary to analyze and predict the behavior of people at work in the context of grouping processes in the organization, intragroup interaction, and group development stages.
4. Sociological theories explaining the features and factors of differences in organizational behavior
Recall that sociology studies mainly the behavioral activity of not individuals, but of various associations of people - social communities. This does not mean that specific people are not of interest to sociologists. On the contrary, the sociology of personality is traditionally one of the main areas of sociological research and structural elements of sociological theories. In accordance with their views on the nature of the human activity, sociologists explain the features of the behavior of individuals by two factors:
- their belonging to specific social communities, which differ in size, culture, goals, types of activity, lifestyle, interests, etc.;
- the position that these people occupy in these communities.